CONVENTIONAL VS APPROPRIATE DEVELOPMENT:
(Appropriate development is in bold.)
Increase business turnover, production for sale, generation of economic "wealth", as much as possible.
Develop what will meet the needs of people and raise their quality of life, beginning with the poorest.
Thus the supreme goal is economic growth.
The goal is a steady state economy that provides enough for all.
Allow development to be determined by market forces; i.e., let corporations develop whatever will maximise their profits. Minimise controls and restrictions on corporations. Maximise their freedom of enterprise. Make land a commodity. Minimise state ownership and regulation of firms. Free enterprise is most efficient.
Prevent market forces and profit from determining what is developed; they will only deliver most wealth to the corporations and the rich few. Development goals must be somehow set by society, not by what suits corporations and rich consumers. In other words there must be much regulation, much social control over development. Free enterprise and markets are extremely inefficient at developing what is most needed.
Investment can only be increased and economic activity got going if people with capital to invest can see opportunities for profitable business. So development must be led by the purposes and activities that the rich and the corporations and the urban middle classes want to develop and want to buy. Yes the rich will get most of the benefit at first but in time wealth will trickle down to enrich all.
Hardly anything ever trickles down. Conventional development just delivers most of the wealth to the rich, i.e. to Third World elites, transnational corporations and rich countries. It essentially only develops what is in the interests of the rich. It takes the productive capacity people once had away from them and applies it to producing what the rich want. Conventional development is a form of plunder. It is far better for people to put their time into producing cooperatively for themselves than to put it into producing exports for low wages in order to pazy for imported goods.
Capital is crucial; development is not possible without large investment in infrastructures and in productive plant. Therefore foreign investment and loans are essential. So is sophisticated technology.
Little capital is needed to develop the most needed and appropriate industries, especially food and shelter for all. Small scale, local and simple technologies and systems are appropriate. Few elaborate or costly infrastructures are necessary for appropriate development. Foreign investors never develop what is most needed; they always develop what is most profitable to themselves.
Initiative comes from the top. The government, the World Bank and foreign investors decide what is to be developed.
Local people decide what they want done and organise to do it.
The goal is rich world affluent-consumerlifestyles and ways. Development = the Losangelisation of the planet.
The goal is simple but sufficient material lifestyles. Rich world affluence is impossible for all to achieve
It will be many years before benefits to people in general will be evident.
There are immediate benefits from appropriate development. People work on their urgent problems now. A good quality of life for all should be achieved in say 5 years.
Become integrated into and dependent on the global economy. Trade, borrow, attract foreign investment. Take on large debts, compete to export into glutted world markets in an effort to pay debt off.
Remain as independent as possible from the global economy. Maximise national self- sufficiency. Only import necessities that can be afforded through the surplus available from exports after basic needs have been met.
Serious environmental damage will occur. E.g forests will have to be cut in an effort to pay off huge debts.
Local ecosystems are protected and restored.
Inequality will intensify, for a long time because the rich few get most of the benefit from conventional development.
Inequalities are immediately reduced because development focuses on those in most need.
Development is centralised, focusing on the city or mines or plantations. Heavy industry is important.
Development is spread across rural villages, mostly involving light industry.
Development is driven by an individualistic world view; enable individuals to maximise their self interest.
Adopt a collective outlook; always ask what developments will be best for society?
Modernise. Abandon traditional ways. Become like rich countries.
Retain cultural traditions.
After 50 years there will have been much development, a few will have become very rich, but the country will be heavily in debt, it will be totally dependent on the global economy, and most people will be living in poverty with no hope of significant improvement in coming decades.
Appropriate development might raise all to satisfactory but non-affluent living standards in a few years.
For a detailed statement on these issues see Third World Development
See also Collected Documents; THIRD WORLD
The Simpler Way: Analyses of global problems (environment, limits to growth, Third World...)and the sustainable alternative society (...simpler lifestyles, self-sufficient and cooperative communities, and a new economy.) Organised by Ted Trainer. http://www2.arts.unsw.edu.au/tsw/